The Indispensability of Apostleship

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“…the One who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things… gave apostles…” || Eph. 4.10b-11a

There is much confusion aswirl over the subject of apostleship, especially as it relates to the question of whether or not it should be seen as an ongoing ministry in our day.

Some would say, “Apostles ceased to be when the last of the Twelve died.”

Others would say, “Apostles ceased to be when the canon of Scripture was closed. We don’t need apostles today because we don’t need more Scripture written.”

Others, especially in Charismatic and continuationist “missional” circles might say, “Apostles exist today. They are the movers and shakers, market-place influencers, or the ones gifted to build ministries that have profound impact on the Great Commission and give aid to churches on various levels.”

Still others would say, “Apostles exist today and have authority to govern regions and to oversee multiple churches and ministries.”

To be sure, confusions abound and emotively charged opinions often fuel fiery debates with regard to the issue of apostleship.

My main three aims in this article are to survey two of the primary errors when it comes to thinking of apostleship (the first of which is not so modern but is still prevalent today), namely, (1) objections to the ongoing necessity of apostleship and (2) unbiblical modern apostleship claims and views, and (3) to offer what I believe to be a view of apostleship that is grounded in Scripture and is therefore indispensable to the life and mission of the Church in the NT vision, and which remains applicable today, even until Christ returns in glory.

So, the cat’s out of the bag. I am convinced that apostleship is meant by our Ascended Lord to be an ongoing ministry in our day— indeed, an ongoing ministry until the “Apostle and High Priest of our confession” returns. What this means may be surprising to some of you, but if you give thoughtful consideration to what I’m presenting you will find that none of the ideas I hold forth are either novel or extra-biblical. I am convinced that apostleship is indispensable chiefly because I hold to “Sola Scriptura”, not in spite of my reverence for and conviction to the inerrancy and sufficiency of Scripture.

This raises a host of questions from various angles, of course, and I haven’t the time here to raise and address all of them. Let me focus on what I believe to be the two primary errors in our day when it comes to the issue of apostleship.

Error #1: The Cessationist View Regarding Apostleship

The Cessationist view, specifically with regard to apostleship (usually including a view that prophets too have ceased to be), is the view that with the death of John the Apostle (the last of the Twelve), or more commonly, with the closing of the Canon of Scripture (or when the last NT book was written), there no longer remained a need for apostles, as their primary role was to unfold the mystery of the Gospel in an authoritative and Biblical sense, first as preachers, then as authors of the NT.

In this view, the mystery “kept hidden for ages” had now been disclosed in Christ (which is true according to Rom. 16.25), the Scriptures had been written, and since this was (in the their view) the primary role of the apostles, none were any longer needed for the ongoing mission and upbuilding of the Church. I happily agree with the first part of that statement (that Scripture-writing apostles had an authority unique to themselves in relation to the foundational, post-resurrection/post-Pentecost proclamation of the Gospel and authorship of NT books), but I differ with the last part (that apostleship ceased altogether with the completion of the Canon).

I share some sympathies with those who hold to this view, though in the last analysis I find its conclusion about the cessation of apostleship to be unbiblical. My sympathies lie with the fact that those who hold to this view are eager to uphold the supremacy and uniqueness of Biblical revelation. That is a conviction that self-proclaimed apostles as well as missiologists of various stripes have disregarded in our day, and it has been the seedbed of many ills.

The Cessationist’s fear of present-day apostles (and prophets) often issues from a high view of the Bible, coupled with the assumption that the apostolic ministry is a foundational revelatory ministry- which was of course true for the the apostles who were given the task of writing portions of our NT. If claims of modern apostleship are made, Cessationists assume, so might there be claims of new revelations which are not in keeping with the testimony of Scripture. I understand that fear, and it is a healthy fear on the front end— we should flee from any would-be Bible-twisters or new Scripture-writers. However, I believe Cessationist conclusions are misguided for many reasons, while I commend them for being jealous to guard the truth of the Word. They have valid reasons to maintain this concern due to the abuses of self-proclaimed apostles, and where it applies I agree with them. But when we take “the whole counsel of God” into view (that is, the whole Bible), there’s much more to be considered than the Cessationist view offers.

Let us consider some of their objections to present-day apostleship. For brevity’s sake, I’ll give a few short thoughts in response to each one.

Primary Objections Made by Those Who Believe Apostles Have Ceased

Objection I. “We don’t need apostles today because Scripture has already been written.”

Is this a true statement?

I don’t think so, and here are some of the reasons why.

As is clear from the Bible itself, the authorship of Scripture was ever meant to be definitive of apostleship nor exclusive to apostleship. There is much I could say on this point, but here are some reasons why this point is erroneous, if even well-intended.

a. Not all apostles wrote Scripture. In fact, most of the apostles named in the NT didn’t write Scripture. Only a few of the original 12 wrote Scripture (Matthew, Peter, John), and of the other 10 or so names associated with apostleship in the NT, only a few were given the authoritative role of writing what would become Scripture (Paul, as well as the author of Hebrews, if in fact it wasn’t Paul).

b. Not all the authors of Scripture were apostles (nor were the remainder all prophets). This is glaringly obvious when we survey the whole of the Bible.

First off, if the authorship of Scripture was exclusive to apostleship the entire Old Testament would not be Scripture! That is absurd, and I’ve never heard anyone make that claim.

Not counting the Old Testament, Mark, Luke (whose Luke-Acts combo constitutes more of the NT’s content than Paul’s epistles!), and perhaps James, respectively.

I needn’t belabor this point. There is no way to make a case from the Bible that biblical authorship was either definitive or exclusive to the role of apostleship. Simply put, some apostles were chosen and uniquely empowered by God to write some of the books in the Bible, but not all apostles were given this task, and the majority of the men chosen by God as instruments for the penning of Scripture were not themselves apostles. We may conclude confidently that the authorship of Scripture was neither definitive nor exclusive to the role of apostleship.

Objection II.

“Jesus chose the twelve, and Paul was the only other apostle, since he also had ‘seen the Lord.’ (1 Cor. 9.1) Any subsequent claim to apostleship is a presumptuous thing at best, and at worst, a destructive kind of deception- even a blasphemous claim.”

This point, which has cemented into a rather common tradition, is purely based on historical and biblical ignorance. Here are a few reasons it cannot be true:

a. Within the NT text itself, there are at least 10 men besides the 12 directly called ‘apostles’ or named amongst the company of apostles (c.f. Acts 1.26, 14.14; Gal. 1.19; 1 Cor. 4.6, 9; Rom. 16.7; 1 Thess. 1.1, 2.6; Phil. 2.25). Even if you seek to argue that some of these were comrades of the apostles but not really apostles, you cannot make that case for all of them, as many of them are explicitly called apostles in the texts provided. There is no sound hermeneutical approach, no commendable exegesis of these texts which would lead us to conclude that some, if not all of the names mentioned herein were not known as apostles in the early church. The idea that only the 12 plus Paul were apostles is not confirmed in Scripture.

b. Ephesians 2.20 and 4.11ff never specify that the work of the apostles (and prophets) will only continue in the sense that their Biblical testimony is foundational for the Church.

Is apostleship by nature foundational? Without question. Any deviation from the Biblical prophets and apostles should be feared and rejected as error. But nowhere does the text teach or even imply in the slightest sense that the ongoing equipping and upbuilding of the church is the work of pastors, evangelists, and teachers only.

It is an acrobatic feat of interpretation (not without some sleight of hand) to pluck apostles and prophets out from this text, or to define them as first-century ministries while the other ministries are to be ongoing.

I understand why many have concluded this, and I sympathize with the well-meaning intention to maintain a high-view of Scripture, but I think it eventuates in a diminishing of the Bible at the end of the day. It is a twisted exposition of Eph. 4.11 and other Biblical texts regarding apostleship. Often this is done unconsciously or because of theological traditions that go back some centuries. Nonetheless, a poor interpretation of Scripture and the elevation of opinions and extra-biblical traditions is the antithesis of a high-view of the Bible, not the reverse. The original 12 certainly had a unique apostleship as eye-witnesses of the Lord’s ministry, and they will have a privileged place in the age to come, as Matt. 19.28 makes clear. Certainly Paul’s apostleship was tip-of-the-spear and unique as the original pioneer apostolic work among the Gentiles, not to mention that he was given the task of writing works that would make up a large part of the NT. No post-biblical apostle will ever do that, and if he claims to, he is disqualified and should be avoided at all costs. But this does not prove that apostleship itself has ceased.

It should also be noted that none of the apostles, even the ones who wrote Scripture, were in and of themselves immune to error or short-sightedness. In other words, none of the them were Jesus, and none of their lives as a whole constitute the Canon of Scripture. That which the Holy Spirit breathed out in Scripture, both historically and didactically is what constitutes the Word of God. It is the Scriptures that are infallible, not the men who were used of God to write them. Even within the Scripture itself, we see occasional disagreements amongst the apostles. These do not prove the fallibility of the Bible, but rather the fallibility of all men, save the Man Christ Jesus. Our faith is in God and the Holy Scriptures, not in the apostles as men.

c. Paul speaks about false apostles in his epistles (1 and 2 Cor. especially), and Jesus commends the church in Ephesus for finding false apostles to be false. Why does this speak to the necessity of ongoing apostleship? Because the ground of their falsehood was not as cessationists claim today, “No other apostles besides the 12 and Paul were meant to be given to the Church.” Rather, the ground of their falsehood was their lack of Christ-likeness, their poor doctrine, their lack of true servanthood, their poor grasp of the Gospel, and on and on. They had not truly been sent by the Head of the Church, and that marked them out as false. Paul never said, “They’re false, because they are neither among the 12, nor are they me. Me and the twelve are the only apostles ordained by the Lamb.” Of course not. They were false on other grounds.

In other words, they were disqualified from being counted as apostles because they had not been shaped and sent by the Lord in a manner which pleased His heart and was in keeping with His Word. The fact that there were false apostles meant that there ought to be true apostles, and there is no biblical reason to assume that this ought not to be the case today. There are fakers today, and the need for true apostles is of paramount import still.

d. You cannot be an apostle without a Christophany, and all claims to modern Christophany are false.

Gordon Fee gives another angle on this in his commentary on 1 Corinthians:

Along with 15:8 this question establishes two things: (a) Paul believed that his experience on the Damascus road was more than a mere vision. For him it was a resurrection appearance of a kind with all the others—to be sure, after the ascension and therefore out of due season (15:3–8). (b) But since others who saw the Risen Lord did not become apostles, what most likely legitimized his apostleship was the accompanying commissioning. Although he does not say so here, in Gal. 1:16 the revelation of the Son of God is accompanied by its purpose, “that I might preach him among the Gentiles” (cf. 15:8–11, where the resurrection appearance is followed by discussion of his apostleship).

Fee, G. D. (1987). The First Epistle to the Corinthians (p. 395). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Emphasis mine.

In other words, the qualification for apostleship came with the Christophany, it wasn’t the Christophany itself. It was rather, that when the Lord appeared to him He simultaneously commissioned him as an apostle. This is an important observation, and distinguishes Paul’s encounter with the risen Lord from the encounters of other believers who never entered the apostolate. It seems clear to me that the Lord of the harvest intended other apostles to be sent, not merely the 12 and Paul. After all, the prayer of Matthew 9.37-38 is still binding upon the Church, as long are there remain unreached peoples. Therefore, we need not just any kind of worker, or missionaries defined however we please to define them. We need apostles.

In connection to this, let us think about 1 Cor. 9.1. As we’ve noted, it is often said that since Paul had “seen the Lord”, a Christophany was required for one to be called as an apostle. 1 Cor. 15.3-11 may seem to contain an even stronger argument for this idea, and it is quite understandable that many would come to this conclusion from the text. The 12 had seen the risen Lord, and Paul encountered Him on the road to Damascus, as well as later in a time of prayer in the temple (Acts 22.17-21). Many conclude from this that a visible/audible encounter with Jesus is a qualification for apostleship. Is that what Paul was saying? I don’t believe so.

I do see how this could be a point of confusion, but I believe Paul actually answers his questions within the texts themselves. The point of 1 Cor. 9.1 is to give defense of his character and role to the Corinthian church. His aim was to undergird his exhortations regarding food sacrificed to idols (ch. 8), and to reiterate the divine right of an apostle to receive financial support from the churches to which he was rightly related (ch. 9). Thus, he asks several questions. “Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord?”

Paul’s motive here is not to give a list of qualifications for apostleship, but to defend his apostleship for the sake of building up the Body of believers at Corinth. He is not saying, “All apostles must have visibly seen the risen Christ.” We must take into account the fact that while the 12 had all seen Him, and some of the other apostles in the NT may have been present when the 500 witnessed the ascension, we have no explicit record of every apostle in the NT seeing Christ in this way. Nor does the Book of Acts or the other Epistles mention a Christophany as a qualification for apostleship. We may assume that they all did, but this would be an assumption still. This is not sufficient ground to conclude that apostles (or from the Latin: missionaries) are no longer necessary to the task of the Great Commission.

The primary point of 1 Cor. 15.3-11 is indeed the supremacy of the Gospel and the reality of Christ’s resurrection, for which reasons Paul is mentioning all of those who saw the Lord in His resurrected state.

Another reason I don’t think Paul was putting forth a Christophany as a qualification for apostleship is that Paul was not the last apostle called and sent in the NT, though he does say, “last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared also to me.” Some of the apostles mentioned in the texts above were not only called and sent after Paul’s commissioning, a few of them were even led to the Lord and discipled by Paul, Timothy and Titus being a few examples. Did they have a Christophanic experience? Certainly no text makes this clear.

Not only that, but Paul mentions the 500 others who saw them, the vast majority of which probably never became apostles. We have no record of them all being sent in the apostolic sense, and if we did, this would disassemble the idea that only the 12 plus Paul were apostles. Was Paul’s main point that apostles must have a Christophany, or that Christ in fact had risen from the dead, and that there were many witnesses to the fact? I believe the latter is the case more warranted by Scripture.

There is, however, a qualification for true apostleship given in 1 Cor. 9, and it is not the requirement of a Christophany. It is found in vv. 1b-3:

“Are not you my workmanship in the Lord? If to others I am not an apostle, at least I am to you, for you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord. This is my defense to those who would examine me.”

In other words, true apostles will preach the Gospel, make disciples, and plant and nurture churches. Their seal of approval is seen in the Christ-glorifying churches which grow out of their planting and watering. God gives the increase, and the fruit of the Spirit vindicates the authenticity of the apostle.

Many today may claim to have Christophanic experiences, and they have throughout Church history. Some of them may be true, but many (I would assume most) of them are false. But you cannot fake the establishment and growing in grace of a family of believers, who previously were bound in darkness, sin and idolatry, and who through the faithful preaching of the Gospel are now serving the living God, growing in holiness and humility, treasuring and obeying the Scriptures.

Much more could be said of the Cessasionist view, but that will have to suffice for now. Let us look to another erroneous and rather widespread view regarding modern-day apostleship.

The “New Apostolic Reformation”/Charismatic “Third Wave” View

I have already written much more than intended, so I’ll be as terse as possible here.

For the last three decades or so, there has been an emphasis within the wider Charismatic movement on apostleship. Some have dubbed this emphasis The New Apostolic Reformation, though all Charismatics who hold to present day apostleship would not consider themselves to be a part of the movement specifically. You can find out more about this online or through a number of publications, though I must say, these are rather shark-infested waters.

On the one hand, much of what you’ll see from the so-called “N.A.R.” (and spin-offs from it) will be troubling, and in my estimation, we should be troubled by much of it. On the other hand, many who seek to criticize modern-Charismatic emphases on apostleship often do so in venomous, slanderous ways, usually lumping all charismatic believers into the mix with leaders and teachings that the wider circle of Pentecostal/Charismatic churches wouldn’t be in harmony with on all points.

It is a task quite daunting to wrap one’s mind around this, and in some ways it is impossible to know the whole of the matter. It is unprofitable to spend too much time investigating it. There are so many variations and streams that overlap in this category that we must be careful not to caricature or misrepresent true brothers and sisters in our pilgrimage for truth. The spectrum is rather large, with some so-called apostles being outright charlatans while others are genuine brothers and sisters who are eager for God’s glory, but may have misunderstandings of apostleship because of how they’ve been taught.

This is crucial to remember, for there are many faithful Pentecostal/Charismatic men and women of God all over the world, many of whom have suffered greatly for the faith and led many sons to glory. It is an error to lump all Pentecostal/Charismatic churches in with the false apostleship we’re speaking of, even though most of those who claim apostleship are found within Pentecostal/Charismatic churches and movements, generally speaking. There are likely a great host of servants in the nations who are continuationists, most of whom will never be known on the popular level, whose ministries are very much in keeping with true apostleship in terms of their character, their suffering, their doctrine, and their fruit. This must be acknowledged as we think about the aberrations.

That said, let me note just a few of the erroneous assumptions that have been espoused, especially over the last 20-30 years or so under the auspices of C. Peter Wagner and his colleagues. I name him here not to demean him, but to say that since his books and teachings were quite public and influential, the errors which sprung from them need to be addressed rather than ignored. It is an unfortunate thing that many Charismatic leaders have been unwilling to address these things publicly, but I am convinced that many false claims to apostleship have been made as a result of these teachings, and the subject is too precious in Scripture for us to permit these distortions.

I. The Idea of Apostles as Ministry CEO’s or Regional Overseers

Within the N.A.R., apostles came to be defined as men (and women) with remarkable organizational gifting, often smacking of a Bill Gates type of leader- one with outstanding abilities to influence and build large organizations. It was even claimed from time to time that men like Steve Jobs had an apostolic calling, but failed to fulfill it because they did not follow the Lord. This is an unbiblical idea. Our giftings in the Church are Spiritual- and unregenerate men cannot have them. Natural giftings can certainly be squandered. This happens all the time. But an “apostolic calling” is not given to unregenerate men.

Certain leaders in the movement were eventually branded “apostolic overseers” of a whole cluster of churches or ministries, especially as they were gifted to execute things administratively. Portions of Paul’s epistles were cherry-picked to affirm this, usually devoid of their real meaning and context, and these men were seen as problem-solvers, movers and shakers, and this came to define apostleship within the movement. The NT idea of a gospel-grounded, relationally-oriented, sacrificial servant-apostle was scarcely emphasized, and an unbiblical model emerged. The central-to-Paul character and doctrine of “Christ crucified” was scarcely considered among those who who were being “appointed” to apostleship. I am sure that there were exceptions to this within the movement, but by and large this seemed to be the flavor of things.

One would be hard-pressed to assume that Paul the apostle, the prototypical “sent one” to the Gentiles, was anywhere nearly as impressive as these figures in a worldly sense. 2 Cor. 10 bears this out in no uncertain terms. His strength was demonstrated in the weakness of his features and skills, in many ways, God’s power being perfected and magnified through his weakness and his sufferings. The fragrance of worldly success is not the “fragrance of Christ” which characterized NT apostleship, which was marked by humility and holiness, godly sorrow and joy unspeakable.

The theology of the NT apostles, the character of the NT apostles, the churchmanship of the NT apostles, and the Gospel mission of the NT apostles was on the periphery of the movement at best, and often, it was nowhere to be found. Hence, one should regard the movement, by and large, to be false, even if some of its proponents were true brothers. They did not qualify biblically to function as apostolic servants.

II. The Idea of “Apostolic Alignment”

I find no pleasure in digging this one up, in fact it pains me. But I find it necessary to address. The stakes are too high to be silent about it.

It became common within this movement to speak of “apostolic alignment”, the process by which Dr. Wagner and others of his company would “align” other ministries with themselves, appointing them as new apostles, prophets, or influencers of other kinds through the laying on of hands. It is Biblical for men to be appointed to different roles of leadership by the Church through the laying on of hands, but within the N.A.R. this happened on rather unbiblical and unreal grounds.

One dramatic case of this was seen on the international stage when Todd Bentley of the “Lakeland Revival” was “apostolically aligned” in a ceremonial appointing in 2008. Dr. Wagner and many of his colleagues were present at this event and gave sanction to it. It would soon be exposed that Bentley was engaged in an immoral relationship, which itself disqualified him from being a leader in the Body of Christ of any kind, not to mention his being appointed to a role with grandiose claims about him being a prototype for all future evangelists and revivalists. Despite the claim of real apostolic activity in this “alignment”, there was evidently little to no real accountability or viable relationship involved in the process. This is characteristically non-Pauline. There was no context by which his character and doctrine could be assessed. But Paul told Timothy not to lay hands on men too hastily, lest we “share in their sin.”

This display on a wide public platform should only be seen as destructive and false, and the usage of “apostolic” language only served to make it all the more tragic. This kind of “Apostolic alignment” is a “Saul before the David,” and as much as the N.A.R. might have cried for its prospering, it was totally untethered from the spirit of NT apostolic sending. However much the language of “apostolic” was used, it was by its very nature the antitheses of New Testament apostolicity, which is characterized by a radical jealousy for the Name of God, a deep-seated submission to the Scriptures, a profound love for the Body of Christ, and a fatherly/brotherly kind of relatedness to all who are appointed to roles of leadership within the Church.

Too much goes on without being “in the light” in these kinds of ceremonies. It might be said that these kinds of appointments are more akin to Bill Gates hiring a new regional director at Microsoft than they relate to the healthy appointing of a leader in the church. In fact, they may be even less accountable and honest. This should not lead us to demonize all within the movement, but this kind of thing should never have been tolerated. We ought all to tremble at the manner in which we are relating to one another as the church, and to be much more cautious about the way in which we are appointing leaders.

The aftermath of the Lakeland incident was tragic and multi-layered, but it is not uncommon (though often much less public) in such circles. Poor examples of this kind can be found in more traditional church settings as well, but we are thinking about claims to apostleship in this article, so that is my focus here.

These examples ought to be enough to compel us to look for light from the Scriptures. Wagner was, after all, correct in concluding that there ought to be (and are) apostles in the Church and in missions today. In fact, he was right about several things. But the errors which came out of this movement are more grave than I have time here to convey, and a humble and prayerful return to “the whole counsel of God” in Scripture should be our watchword.

For the last section of this article, I would like to focus on the Meaning, Purpose, and Indispensability of Apostleship.

The Meaning of Apostleship

If we would rightly grasp the meaning of apostleship according to the Scriptures, I suggest that our understanding of it must be both de-mystified and sanctified.

Apostleship De-mystified

This speaks primarily to the cessationist view of apostleship and its ripple-effects throughout church history.

The apostles of the NT were not super-heroes, nor were they elite saints whose role it was to write the Holy Bible. As noted above, some of them did write some of Scripture, but this was not their role as a whole, nor is this the meaning of “apostle” in the NT sense. We need to be freed from Romish influences which Popify Peter and posterize Paul. These issue from a low view of the Gospel.

The apostles of Scripture are, after all, our brothers. The Lord laid His hand upon them, shaped and sent them, but they remained men— trophies of grace, not icons to memorialize. Leaders to follow, not men to worship. Peter and John as well as Paul and Barnabus charged their would-be worshippers not to exalt them, “for we are only men like you.” Of course, the original twelve had a unique kind of apostleship (Mt. 19 bears this out), and I repeat, the authority to write Scripture does not continue today. Any claim to apostleship that includes new Scripture being written is patently false and inspired by Satan. But even among false apostles today, the claim to this authority is rare.

We do need apostleship to be demystified today. None of us as orthodox evangelical believers would claim to worship the apostles, but we have mystified their lives as if they were saints of a higher class. In fact, they were not. They may have been more Christ-like than us, but the possibilities of grace were not confined to them. The same Gospel which saved them has saved us, and the same Spirit which sanctified them is yet sanctifying us. This is one of the main points of NT apostolic teaching. The apostles meant for us to follow in their train, not to exalt them as ends in themselves. We are to look upon them, and seeing through them, to behold the One who means to conform the whole of the Church to His image.

The Canon of Scripture is superior in perfection and authority to all else that is taught in Church history, but again, it’s authorship is not exclusive to the role of apostleship. The Biblical Gospel is the authoritative Gospel, whether it came through Paul the apostle or Isaiah the prophet, or Luke the Physician.

The apostles of Scripture were not to be seen as the source, but rather as those who were ever pointing to the Source, serving as an example to the saints in character and doctrine, and a special example to apostolic servants/missionaries in every generation. We must de-mystify them in this sense. We cannot “follow Paul as he follows Christ” if we think that he was cut from finer cloth than we. This is vital for the fulfillment of the Great Commission. Apostles were not super-heroes or virtuosos.

No, Paul’s dust was the same as ours and his Christ is the same Christ as ours, so long as we are submitted to the Scriptures and drinking of the same Spirit. The “chief of sinners” was a precious servant of Christ, shaped by the grace of God, and held forth as a pattern for us, not as an ivory-tower monument, untouchable and unreachable. Let us not belittle the grace of God by mystifying who the apostles were.

Apostleship Sanctified

This speaks more to those who would claim that apostles are for today, but whose view of apostleship is not in keeping with the picture laid forth in the Scriptures. Of course, this applies to the cessationist view as well, as all of our false assumptions regarding apostleship need to be purged and brought back to the foundational ground and definition laid forth in Scripture.

I address here the more Charismatic views because I believe that the word “apostle” has been cheapened and made too common by their claims. While I’m eager not to explain apostleship as something that has ceased, or something that is so elevated that we could never think of seeing it at work in our day, I’m equally leery of the cheapening effect that false claims to apostleship have had on the church and its mission. This foul treatment of apostleship has been especially flagrant in the Charismatic world, and though I am myself continuationist, I am compelled to address it.

Perhaps it would be fitting here to insert my conviction that apostles and missionaries are one and the same, in the Biblical sense of the words. “Apostle” comes from the Greek and “Missionary” comes down to us from the Latin. Apostleship (or the missionary call) should be be defined from the Scriptures that it came from, and hence, when we think about the role of an apostle (or the role of a missionary) Scripture itself must be our guide and authority.

If one of the roles of true apostles, as it was in the Bible, is to appoint elders/pastors who qualify to serve in accordance with 1 Tim. 3, Titus 1, 1 Pet. 5 and Acts 20, then it should go without saying that apostles themselves should bear the same kind of character, doctrine, and spiritual wisdom which is required of elders/pastors on a local level. Elders/pastors are not merely men of elite intellect and morality, as if their qualities issue from themselves, but they are humble and godly men who have been shaped over time by the faithful hands of the Potter. Apostles must be shaped by God in like manner. Thus Paul exclaimed, “You saw what manner of men we were among you.” “I am what I am by the grace of God.”

We must return to understanding apostleship in accordance with the example we see in the New Testament. Therefore, unless we are basically gripped with and grounded by a Biblical vision of apostleship, our view must be sanctified, that we might rightly pray for and equip sent ones by the help of the Scriptures and the power of the Holy Spirit.

The Purpose of Apostleship

Why did the Lord ascend on high and give the gift of apostles along with the other gifts mentioned in Ephesians 4.11? Let us look to the text itself for the answer:

“…to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes. Rather, speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.” || Eph. 4.12-16

Simply put, along with prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers, apostles were given by Christ to equip the saints for the work of service, and to build up the Body of Jesus in the nations.

They are sent to proclaim the Gospel where it has been named and where it has not been named (Acts 2, Rom. 15), to make disciples (Mt. 28.16-20), to impart spiritual gifts (Rom. 1, 2 Tim. 1), to plant and nurture churches (Acts 20, 2 Cor. 11.28), to appoint elders (Acts 14.23, Titus 1), and to do this in an ongoing manner until the fullness of Christ characterizes the Church and every people group has been penetrated with the light of the Gospel (Mt. 24.14).

Apostleship is synonymous with true missionary work. Missions work that is devoid of the character, doctrine, and ways of NT apostleship is by definition non-missionary, sub-apostolic. Claims to apostleship that are not in keeping with the missionary labors of the NT apostles are by definition sub-apostolic.

Apostles and Missionaries, from a biblical vantage point, are one and the same (a study of the Greek and Latin from which we derive “apostle” and “missionary” reveals this). Many have claimed apostleship cheaply, and others have claimed to be missionaries with little or no apostolic character. We cannot settle for this, saints. We must de-mystify and sanctify the meaning of apostleship/missions with the help of the Scriptures.

The Indispensability of Apostleship

In light of these things, it should be seen that apostleship is indispensable to the fulfillment of the Great Commission, which is the establishing and building up of local churches amongst every tribe and tongue.

We cannot be the church nor fulfill our mission without true apostles. Let us look to the “Apostle and High Priest of our confession”, the One who shed His blood to purchase men from every tribe. Let us “therefore pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest.” 

Is apostolic ministry indispensable? Is it needed today?

“If we’re thinking of an ‘apostle’ in Biblical terms, that is, a ‘sent out one’, with a ministry that’s really establishing God’s work where God’s work is either absent or extremely weak (which is really what the apostles were doing in a general sense) then yes, we do need God to raise up such signal servants, who will draw the attention of both the churched and the unchurched people to the claims of the Lord Jesus Christ, sometimes at great sacrifice to themselves. Because they are so taken up with Christ… Christ is being preached. In that sense we need to pray, in our different towns, cities, countries… that God will raise up such clear voices— individuals whose ministry will be trail-blazing for others.” || Conrad Mbewe, Pretoria, South Africa, October 14th, 2010

Let us return to the Scriptures. Let us return to prayer. The Gospel is too precious a message, the destiny of men too ponderous, and the Name of Christ too holy for us to “sit at ease in Zion” while the world around us perishes. The task before us is great. We don’t need youthful goers or adventure-seekers. We need apostolic servants. Surely, the Lamb who was slain is worthy of “sent ones.” This is no small thing, but it is indispensable to the Great Commission.

“Then He said to His disciples, ‘The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few; therefore pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into His harvest.'” -Mt. 9.37-38

 

The Only Foundation of True Ministry

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The seventy-two returned with joy, saying, ‘Lord, even the demons are subject to us in Your name!’ And he said to them, ‘I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall hurt you. Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. || Luke 10.17-20

In this remarkable passage we have one of the profoundest Gospel statements in the whole of the Bible. It speaks to the bedrock issue of our adoption as sons and daughters of God. I would here like to think about its implications for our day-to-day lives and for the ministries to which we give ourselves.

The Lord of the harvest had sent out 72 of His disciples at the beginning of the chapter. He articulated the greatness of the need in Gospel missions and the ripeness of the harvest fields. He bemoaned the dearth of laborers and left us with the charge to pray for their raising up and sending. Then He sent the disciples to proclaim the Gospel and to drive out demons in the towns which they would pass through.

The 72 “returned with joy,” declaring that demons were subdued and driven out in the Name of Jesus. There was legitimate joy in their hearts, the joy of being vessels who carried out of the works of God’s Kingdom. Yet, the Lord of the harvest gives a startling response to their rejoicing, one which ought to be central to our consciousness as those laboring in Gospel mission. Like these 72 disciples, the kind of rejoicing Jesus encouraged is often lacking today among those who are engaged in various forms of the ministry. Let us consider this.

According to Jesus, they were not to rejoice mainly in the works that were wrought through them, but rather in the glory of their adoption as sons— as those whose names had been written by God in heaven.

Robert Stein, in his commentary on Luke, speaks to the meaning of the Lord’s exhortation:

This picks up the “joy” of Luke 10:17 and points out that their true joy should arise not from missionary accomplishments but from their eternal salvation.
….

That your names are written in heaven. This metaphor for eternal salvation is found in the OT, the intertestamental literature, and the NT. “Are written” is a divine passive meaning God has written your names in heaven.

[Stein, R. H. (1992). Luke (Vol. 24, p. 310). Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.]

I want to say that it is indeed “upon this rock” that the Lord means to “build His church,” and only upon this rock-solid foundation will the “gates of Hades” be incapable of “prevailing” against Her. Jesus Christ crucified and risen is the one foundation. The message of His Person and Work and the presence of His very Spirit is what made the apostles apostles. What He accomplished as a “ransom for the many” is the glorious center and the immovable ground of our rejoicing. Without strong footing in that truth, we resort to rejoicing in mutable things- even in the ministry itself.

It should be obvious to the child of God that this present world system, with all its sinful allurements, should no longer be accepted as part of our identity. We are to “reckon” ourselves “dead to sin, and alive in Christ,” and no clear-thinking Christian would claim that a life given over to sin befits the life of discipleship. We will be battling our own sin until the Day of the Lord comes, but we are battling it because it no longer defines us. We are disciples, learning to crucify the world in our hearts; learning to walk in the way of the Master. This should be clear to us.

Less clear, often, is the fact that we ought to be battling against our tendency to interweave the good things (even things so good as driving out demons in Jesus’ Name) with our identity at the root-level. Bearing fruit in ministry is a great cause for rejoicing, but if it is the primary ground of rejoicing, something has been twisted in our understanding of the faith.

Jesus said not to give preeminence to the works that are being wrought through us, but rather to rejoice at the deepest level in eternal salvation; that is to say, delighting in the fact that we have become sons and daughters of God through the Gospel of the Kingdom.

Here is a simple way to think about it, one which is so simple that I’ve taught it to my children.

Our identity in the Gospel has vertical and horizontal implications.

Vertically, as we look unto Christ, our root-identity has become that of “sons” and “daughters” of God. Horizontally, our root-identity has become that of “brothers” and “sisters” in the family that we’ve been adopted into. We are not foundationally disciples (students) nor ministers (servants). These portions of our identity are central to the faith, but underneath them, the glories of sonship (vertically) and brotherhood (horizontally) must be perceived and treasured. Otherwise, we are prone to slip into asceticism before God and comparison among the saints.

The Scriptures are so thickly threaded with this truth that I haven’t the time to recite all the verses that speak to us along these lines.

Suffice it to say, whatever I may be engaged in with regard to ministry, even God-given ministries that are biblical and line up with my own unique giftings, they will all become distortions if I am not living as a son in the vertical sense, and as a brother in the horizontal sense.

This puts the Gospel-premium on my relationship to the Father through Christ, and my relationship to the church through Christ.

The evidence of my failure to “rejoice” that my name is “written in heaven” will show itself by prayerlessness, neglect of Bible-reading, a disregard for the many commands of Scripture pertaining to life and godliness, and the neglect of healthy relationship within a local Church. I must not be truly rejoicing in the Gospel if these things are neglected, for deficiencies of these kinds serve as evidence that I am no longer seeing myself as a son in the Son, nor as a brother who has been brought into a familial union with the Church. Without this “name written in heaven” awareness, there is no firm footing to equip and keep me in the ministry as a missionary, a pastor, a theologian, or any other role.

If I cease to see God as my Source through the Gospel, I am likely to neglect communion with Him and fellowship with His people. The sap has been clogged in the tree of service. I will invariably begin to see my “calling” as a preacher, a writer, a church-planter, a worship-leader, a missionary, ministry director, or whatever it may be, as being superior to my grace-given calling as a son before God, and a brother to the saints.

Being a Gospel-grounded son infuses me with the grace of Christ, and being a brother in the context of the life of church keeps me footed on the self-same foundation, guarding me from the variegated deceptions of old-Adam thinking; even from deceptive ways of doing all sorts of ministry.

Various kinds of destructive things have occurred in the name of ministry where these foundations are lacking. That’s because the Lord of the harvest never called his people to do things in the “name of ministry,” but rather in the “Name of Christ.” This is the foundational truth of the Gospel, that our names have been written in Heaven on the basis of the “grace through faith.” Moral collapses, doctrinal deviations, and misrepresentations of the church and its mission have issued from the want of this joyous conviction.

We are simply not living as disciples of Jesus when our ministries take the preeminent place in our souls. When our works to not issue from the foundational truth of adoption, strange fire is kindled and raised to a destructive flame.

When there is a fracture in our awareness of the vertical life-line of sonship, we can literally do nothing aright, for “apart from Me you can do nothing.”

When there is a fracture in the horizontal life-line of brotherhood, even the noblest of ministries become a distortion, for the Lord means to “build” His “church,” which is His family. That family exists not merely to perform a litany of detached and multi-faceted works, however much we might seek to establish them in His Name. Nothing can be established in the Name of the Head in the neglect of His Body.

Perhaps the most deceptive form of this neglect of the church is when we bear sound ecclesiological language on the priesthood of all believers, biblical eldership, Gospel-centric fellowship, etc., but lack the corresponding reality which belongs to those precious truths. We may have an intensive focus on the truths of Scripture while being devoid of the grace and life by which those truths find their issuance in our lives. We may honor the Head with our lips while our hearts are far from Him, and this is something which we need to be on most diligent guard against. If our Orthodoxy does not produce Orthopraxy, a coagulation has occurred at some point. It is probably owing to an inadequate rejoicing in the excellencies of Christ Himself and a neglect of the means of grace that have down to us in the Scriptures.

The Head cannot be detached from the Body, and that Body which seeks to work apart from the Head is destined to meet His disciplinary siftings. If our works are not actually building up His family, neither are they truly exalting the Head. If we are not experiencing life as members in His Body, neither are we experiencing the full-orbed life which issues from the Head. When the vertical and horizontal fruits of our belonging to Christ are lacking or being circumvented, we are swimming in sub-apostolic waters. Be assured of this: Sharks abound in those waters.

So what can be said of your works, saints? Are you rejoicing that demons are subject to you; that your sermon was hailed as great; that the missions work is expanding and doing much good; that your writings are being heralded as ground-breaking; that your theology is ship-shape and confirmed as Orthodox by men you esteem? Let the list go on, but be on guard. Many of these things could be an expression of God truly bearing fruit in your life, but they could also be a sign that you are slipping into deception.

The questions are crucial: Are you presently ministering with a fundamental joy in the fact of your adoption as a son? Are you vitally related to the local church for the ongoing growth of a true rejoicing in the eternal salvation that has come to you in Christ?

Are you living, thinking, praying and laboring as a purchased son? Do the Christians around you truly know you as a brother— in accountability, vulnerability, and godly responsibility in their midst? Or are you more known by your particular gifting or position in the world or in ministry? If latter is true of you, you are standing upon a faulty foundation, however fruitful your ministry may appear to be. A ministry of that kind may be alive by way of reputation, but God will only reward finally what has been wrought by His Spirit and carried out in accordance with His Word. We must labor as recipient-sons, or else the ministry will will be top heavy with worldly wisdom, and we will be robbed of the rest that should be its lifeline. Jesus would have none of this for the 72, and He will have none of it for us. His love for us is too great and too true to permit it.

Little wonder that the most fruitful of apostles in Church history “determined to know nothing among” the saints “except Jesus Christ, and Him crucified.” Paul wanted the church’s identity to be founded upon and issuing from the only faithful and immutable foundation. He was eager to preach the Gospel to the sinners and saints, for only in the Atonement can the saints receive and enjoy the familial identity of sons and daughters before God, and brothers and sisters in His family.

Look at your life and ministry in light of the exhortation that Jesus gave the 72. Aim to discern and tear out the threads of inferior rejoicing that you’ve permitted to define your identity and drive your decisions and ambitions. Let the cross of Christ bring you to the place Paul boasted in, that cross “by which the world has been crucified to me, and I have been crucified to the world.”

Your joy will be fuller and fuller as you grow in an identity of sonship and share intimately as brothers and sisters in the grace of the Gospel. On this foundation He means to build His church in the nations, and by His zeal He will accomplish it. May we be found in the company of souls who know the preciousness of this truth, carrying out His work upon the only true foundation of life and ministry.

But to all who did receive Him, who believed in His Name, He gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. || John 1.12-13

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Let love of the brethren continue. || Heb. 13.1

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Since you call on a Father who judges each person’s work impartially, live out your time as foreigners here in reverent fear. For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your ancestors, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake. Through Him you believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and glorified Him, and so your faith and hope are in God.

Now that you have purified yourselves by obeying the truth so that you have sincere love for each other, love one another deeply, from the heart. For you have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God. For,

“All people are like grass,

and all their glory is like the flowers of the field;

the grass withers and the flowers fall,

but the word of the Lord endures forever.”

And this is the word that was preached to you. || 1 Pet. 1.17-25

Treading Wisely Upon Wilderness Grounds

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Walk in wisdom toward outsiders, making the best use of the time. Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you ought to answer each person. || Colossians 4.5-6

Paul issues a charge to the saints in Colossians 4 with regard to how we ought to carry ourselves in a world which “lies under the power of the evil one.”

Very simply, he tells us to “walk with wisdom toward outsiders.” Every believer needs to hear this exhortation. We are not to take lightly our goings and doings in the daily life of discipleship. We are regularly rubbing shoulders with “outsiders,” in our neighborhoods, as we’re running errands, meeting with blood-relatives, and in the natural cycles of employment and entertainment. Outsiders are everywhere about us, and we are to seek the Lord for “wisdom” as to how we see them and relate to them.

We are too casual about this, often seeing men only as a means to our immediate benefit, counting anything beyond utility as an inconvenience and hassle, and this reveals our lack of Godly wisdom. Too often the saints can be found mingling with the world and being stained by their garments, or swinging to the other pendulum-end by disregarding and avoiding them while we tend to our busy-headed life pursuits. The former dilutes and invalidates the brightness of our witness. The latter makes witness impossible, creating a kind of isolated Christian bubble, which ends up being un-Christian altogether.

Our lack of Godly wisdom in dealing with unbelievers has two root maladies which Paul addresses here, and he calls us to repent and reconfigure them, that we might become wise, seasoned with holy salt, and enabled to answer the labyrinth of worldly paradigms with the rock-solid truth of Jesus Himself. We live in a world that is languishing for want of truth, and only the redeemed of the Lord can address it rightly. Are we walking wisely, that we may do it?

The first root malady has to do with how we manage our time. Paul tells us to make “the best use of the time.” That is to say, we must “take every thought captive,” that every moment of the day might become a window through which the glory of Christ freely shines. We must establish the secret place of prayer and Scripture reading firstly, and secondly, we must learn the art of abiding in Christ throughout the day, and prioritizing all things rightly beneath the canopy of His rule. This will affect everything, from our theology, to our responsibility to the local church, to the ways in which we handle our finances, our families, our work ethic, and our management of all earthly pleasures (including food, entertainment, smart phones, etc.).

The second root malady he addresses is the manner of our speech. We are called to let our “speech always be gracious.” That is to say, we must learn to bridle our tongues, and bring them into submission to the Scriptures, and to the very Spirit of God Himself. There are times when we should be silent, and there are times when we should be speaking. Knowing how to discern these times, to be dependent on the Spirit and submitted to the Scriptures, will determine whether or not our speech is “seasoned with salt,” preserving in our hearts a love of the truth, and flavoring our words in such a way that men might “taste and see” the goodness of God in our conversations with them.

Only this kind of wise-walking amongst outsiders will equip us to “answer each person” in their respective mindsets and worldviews. Only this kind of gracious, salty living and speaking will bear ample witness to the crucified, resurrected, and soon-coming King.

Are you walking in this kind of wisdom, or are you neglecting the command to make the most of your schedule and to be careful about how you listen and speak to others? Your answer to this question may mean the difference between eternal life and eternal damnation for the “outsiders” around you. Indeed, it may mean the difference for your eternal destiny as well, for the child of God who is truly justified will find that his soul is on the road to being sanctified in these ways. If we refuse to grow in this, it may be that we do not belong to Christ at all— that we are “insiders” by way of reputation only, living cultural “Christian” lives which can only lead to the Lord’s fatal pronouncement, “Depart from Me. I never knew you.” We must “work out” our own salvation “with fear and trembling,” and as we do, we become vessels for the salvation of “the many” who otherwise could only be called “outsiders.”

This is our privilege and call. Let us be washed afresh and warmed anew in the grace and holiness of Christ, and give ourselves to the wise-walking which the apostle encourages. Thus may we constitute a “city on a hill” which cannot be “hidden.” One which faithfully casts Gospel-light upon “outsiders”, so that a “people dwelling in darkness” may see the “great light,” even Jesus Christ the Righteous. May we walk in this wisdom, and may it be said of our neighborhoods and cities, even of Israel and the nations, that “those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned.”

Humble Teachableness Beneath the Canopy of Holy Fear

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Teach me Your way, O Lord,
    that I may walk in Your truth;
    unite my heart to fear Your Name. || Ps. 86.11

Humble teachableness befits the true child of God. The children of the world cannot know it, indeed they wish not to know it, for a true knowledge of God’s ways requires the upending “me-firstism”, a total transition and reconfiguration of the man-centered life, until it is suffused with Divine grace and wisdom. “Not my will, but Thine be done.”

The people of the world do not care for enlightenment; they feel no pressing need for it; in all probability they have an instinctive feeling that if enlightened they would know a little more than they wish to know, that their newly acquired knowledge would interfere with their old habits and ways, and this is one reason why all spiritual teaching which goes beneath the surface is distasteful to the majority of men. They cannot bear to be brought into contact with God, in anything but a general way; the particulars of his character may not agree over well with the particulars of their lives! It is the fashion in the present day to talk of man’s enlightenment, and to represent human nature as upheaving under its load, as straining towards a knowledge of truth; such is not in reality the case, and whenever there is an effort in the mind untaught of the Spirit, it is directed towards God as the great moral and not as the great spiritual Being. A man untaught of the Holy Ghost may long to know a moral, he can never desire to know a spiritual Being. || John Hyatt, 1767-1826

To be teachable before God means to make ourselves willing for death; the suffocation of our pipe-dreams and strong-headed aspirations. It does mean a transformation of our moral choices, but the moral change is not the center of the exchange. The center of our becoming teachable is God Himself. It means a radical exchange of our glory for His. Our morals change not because of human preference or opinions, but because we “see the Lord, high and lifted up,” and as Hyatt declared, we are “brought into contact with God,” desiring to “know a spiritual Being.” This brings about not merely a tweaking or improving of our morals, but an exchange of all that we deem moral with the very morality or holiness of God.

“Teach me to know Your way.” The way matters because the “Your” precedes it. The majestic King is the One source and aim of sincere, humble teachableness. He is at once the Source:

Christ is our Way, Truth, and Life, because he is Man united to God, and is one substance with the Father. || Christopher Wordsworth.

There is no learning of His way or walking in His truth apart from the Gospel. Jesus justifies us in the immediate and sanctifies us over time. He “is Man united to God.”

The Psalmist did not merely want to agree theoretically with the truth of God, he wanted to “walk” in it, and this is crucial. His desire was that the very ways of God would permeate his very perspectives and actions. This was true orthodoxy wedded to orthopraxy, faith with works, worship with obedience, a heart “united to fear His Name” in all of life.

Do you possess this kind of humble teachableness, child of God? It is a most precious thing to live in this state of child-like circumspection before God. The same light that pierces and kills the pride of our own way is the light which warms our souls and brightens our vision of the narrow path of discipleship. It must be a daily cry for the pilgrim en route to eternal glories. The world, the flesh and the devil would have us to stand erectly in the deception of self-sufficiency and know-it-allness. The Spirit of truth leads us to humble teachableness, moment by moment, bowing again and again before the authority of His Word, panting and believing for the help of His power and grace.

Our aim then is not to walk in our own way, nor even merely to agree with His way as a category, but to “walk.” To “live, move, and have our being in Him.” 

A life lived outside of this kind of experience, despite even accurate credal affirmations, will be “distasteful to the majority of men,” for by nature we do not yearn for this kind of humble teachableness. We want to do it our way, as Frank Sinatra has so eloquently and devastatingly sung. But to cling to our way, even if we have a “reputation of being alive,” is to go from death to death, to be “double-minded and unstable in all our ways,” and the “end thereof is the way of destruction.” The Scriptures must be our guide along the way, and this applies not only to moral actions, but even to the manner of our ministry in the local church and in missions. Those who lack this kind of humble teachableness can only build works that will at the final Day be left in ashes.

Better to humble ourselves before the wise and gracious Judge, and to sink our souls into the prayer of the Psalmist. “Teach me Your way… that I may walk… Unite my heart to fear Your Name.”

Our hearts must be freed from the double-mindedness of seeking the variegated paths of the worldly. To live under the influence of the spirit of the age means to have a thousand paths before us, all of them wide and quite accessible, but leading ever and always to confusion, uncertainty, and godlessness. In fact, they lead to ill conditions precisely because they are godless, for the One True God is the ground of “righteousness, peace, and joy.” The one path of truth leads to holiness and assurance, and it cannot be traversed without the grace which teaches our hearts to fear God— “amazing grace”, as Newton put it.

Forsake your strong-headedness, your hardness of heart, your insistence to walk in your own way. By faith now look unto Christ, and pray that He would tie your heart in the firmly cinched knot of humble teachableness— that He would unite your heart to fear Him, to learn of His ways, and thereby to “walk in newness of life.”

In knots, to be loosed never,
Knit my heart to Thee forever,
That I to Thy Name may bear
Fearful love and loving fear.
—Francis Davison.

The Apostle’s Interior Life

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“Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God…” -Rom. 1.1

We are inclined to read right over the richness of language that Paul uses in the introductions to his epistles. Modern man is unfortunately accustomed to casual greetings; formalities required to structure a letter rightly- verbiage given to make way for fleeting conversations. But Paul did nothing casually. Every thought and prayer was calculated through the wisdom of the cross and centered upon the eternal purpose of God. He was led by the Spirit for the penning out of the choicest statements, “like apples of gold in settings of silver.” Not a syllable was haphazardly given. Every thought was articulated with great care, “seasoned by grace.”

It is to our detriment that we glide indifferently over the surface of any Biblical text, rather than pausing before it with reverent expectation. The Word is “living and active,” and we need to wait upon it prayerfully, lest we miss out on the sustenance it provides.

In this opening verse of Romans Paul is giving to the saints a description of his position and office. It is not something to be relegated to either “title” or “function.” This is cosmic language. He is coming out of the gate as only apostles can, giving description of his consciousness as a “sent one.”

Paul had been fastened to a “heavenly vision”; bound to a living message; chained to the Lion of Judah, and he had no desire to be freed from that glorious imprisonment. This is precisely the reason why apostolic servants are foundational to the faith of the Church. They have been formed at the hand of the Potter and thrust into the nations as ambassadors of His own character and wisdom. But we need to be cognizant of the fact that the apostolic call was not given to make Paul into an aloof figure in an ivory tower. His foundational role was meant to bring all who are “saints by calling” into the same kind of communion and inward abandonment that was his own portion.

“‘Slave of Christ Jesus’ is patterned on the familiar OT phrase ‘slave,’ or ‘servant,’ of Yahweh. The phrase connotes total devotion, suggesting that the servant is completely at the disposal of his or her Lord.” -Douglas Moo (NICOT, Eerdmans)

Seeing through an apostolic lens, Paul envisaged himself as being in chains for the Gospel (Eph. 6.20), for the “hope of Israel” (Acts 28.20), for Jesus Christ Himself (2 Tim. 2.8-9).

To be so “enslaved” was to be “free indeed,” and this produced in Paul a life of communion and intercession which fitted him to serve as one “set apart for the gospel of God.” If we would cling to a lesser kind of abandonment, we may find ourselves engaged in a plethora of ministerial activities, but we will not share in the glory that belongs to the bond-servants of Jesus Christ. We may be taken up with many labors, but we will not enjoy the light of the apostolic faith. There is a “ministry of the interior” that binds us to the altar of God, welds our hearts to a radical jealousy for His glory, and conjoins our souls with His own. We are not bond-servants merely because we suffer externally. We are bond-servants in the Pauline sense when our interior life is like unto Jesus’ own experience as the pattern Son. “I only do what I see My Father doing…”

Secret communion becomes for us a “joy unspeakable,” and intercessory engagement becomes our most cherished labor when we are inwardly abandoned to Jesus Christ. Paul was intimately acquainted with this reality, and if a display of the “manifold wisdom of God” would come through the Church in these last days, so also must we be.

“Am I fulfilling this ministry of the interior? There is no snare, or any danger of infatuation or pride in intercession, it is a hidden ministry that brings forth fruit whereby the Father is glorified. Am I allowing my spiritual life to be frittered away, or am I bringing it all to one centre- the Atonement of my Lord? Is Jesus Christ more and more dominating every interest in my life? If the one central point, the great exerting influence in my life, is the Atonement of the Lord, then every phase of my life will bear fruit for Him.

….What is the greatest factor of power in my life? Is it work, service, sacrifice for others, or trying to work for God? The thing that ought to exert the greatest power in my life is the Atonement of the Lord….Am I abiding? Am I taking time to abide?” -Oswald Chambers (My Utmost for His Highest, June 7th)

We are not to gauge our spirituality through endless cycles of human assessment. The examination of our faith which Paul encourages has only to do with discerning whether or not we are “living, moving, and having our being” on the ground of the Atonement. That is to ask, “What is the character of my interior life?” Am I abiding in His life? Am I weighed down with the cares of this world, or am I living inwardly as a “bond-servant” of Jesus Christ? Am I itching to find approval from men, or is the Lord Himself the one “before Whom I stand”? Am I frivolous and distracted by the synthetic lights of this age, or am I walking tenderly as one pierced by the life which is “the Light of men”?

Until my earthbound perspectives are leveled by the Cross, I cannot live as His bond-servant. But if I abide in the One Who bears the scars of that great Atoning work, I share in the very life of the age which is to come. If I am “crucified with Christ,” it is His own resurrection life that works “in me.” Am I conscious of that reality, or is my interior life congested and blurred by the “form of this world”? We need to “contend for the faith that was once for all delivered to the saints.”

The nations do not need a greater volume of sentimental religionists. The world is not perishing for want of novel methodologies. A million warm bodies with missiological opinions may fail entirely to set forth a true witness to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. But a company of weak souls, gripped with a vision of the worth of Christ, living cruciformly, abiding in His Life- these will be His bond-servants, “set apart for the Gospel of God.” They shall fulfill “the ministry of the interior,” and by His “great grace,” a witness will be given, “even to the remotest part of the earth.”

“…God, whom I serve in my spirit in the preaching of the gospel of His Son…” (v. 9)

Setting aside my public persona and what others might think of me religiously speaking, what is the true character and content of my interior life? Is it a messy, narcissistic conglomeration, or a clear, well-grounded abiding in the Life of the Lamb that was slain? By the grace of God, Paul’s interior life was the latter, and such is the Lord’s desire for the whole of His house.

Wisely Entering the Sanctuary of God

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When I thought how to understand this,
    it seemed to me a wearisome task,
until I went into the sanctuary of God… || Psalm 73.16-17a

In Psalm 73 the psalmist recounts how he had broken his brain over an inward conflict regarding the reason things seem to go so smoothly for others (in this case the wealthy), while his life seems to be marked by trial and heartache.

Whenever we get entangled in the cycle of examining things we cannot understand, our souls are subjected to all kinds of confusion and grief. This is especially true when we fall into the trap of comparing ourselves to others. It is a “wearisome task,” most often centered around things we cannot rectify on the basis of our own wisdom or within the sphere of our own authority to change them.

This “wearisome” cycle will continue for us, as it did for the psalmist, “until” we enter “the sanctuary of God.” That is to say, clarity and wisdom can only be found when we learn to turn to the Lord, and to find our refuge in the shadow of His providence and grace, the place where He dwells.

For the New Covenant child of God, this “sanctuary” is most often found to be in one of two places.

  1. The secret place-

    This is the place where we go to meet with Him— to give ourselves to prayer, worship, and a humble, hungry and hopeful reading of the Scriptures. If we neglect this place, we can be sure that “wearisome” musings will be our portion, for in that neglect we rob ourselves of the reward which the Father gives only in this place- the reward of knowing Him, hearing Him, seeing Him, and obtaining the grace to treasure and obey Him.

2. The place of fellowship with the saints-

This is the place wherein we meet Him in the faces of our brothers and sisters. Here we “submit to one another out of reverence for Christ,” and are subsequently helped to think better about our plight— not in the “wearisome” cycle of self-absorbed reflection, but in the grace of fellowship, by which we’re pointed God-ward through the felt presence our brothers and sisters— reminded of truth, encouraged in faith, provoked to love and good deeds. Neglecting this place leaves us to ourselves, robs us of the warmth of familial reality and identity, and leaves us thinking myopically, as if the world revolves around us and all its maladies are to be experienced alone. The psalmist knew something of this congregational grace in the ancient tabernacle where he gathered with his brethren, and we may know it all the sweeter in New Covenant fellowship.

Both of these places— the secret place and life within the Gospel-congregation— lift us out of the wearisome morass of the self-life. Both of these places constitute for us “the sanctuary of God.”

In the the sanctuary of God we find true guidance and rest, even while the world— even much of the professing Christian world— goes on running amuck around us.

….You guide me with your counsel,
    and afterward you will receive me to glory. || v. 24

In the secret place, and in real fellowship with the people of God, we find “counsel” and Gospel-hope. We are grounded upon the truth that He is with us in the present trial, that He is conforming us to the image of the Son, and that He will finish that good work when, at the end of the age, He receives us “to glory.” The secret-place-sanctuary, coupled with the congregational-sanctuary, is meant to lead us to the place wherein we cherish, love, and worship God supremely. Here we find solid ground beneath our feet again, when Christ is perceived afresh as our foundation for walking, and our fountain for drinking.

Whom have I in heaven but you?
    And there is nothing on earth that I desire besides you.
My flesh and my heart may fail,
    but God is the strength of my heart and my portion forever. || vv. 25-26

Having experienced the “until,” that point where we transition from our own soulish wanderings to the place of faith through prayer, the Scriptures, and Christian fellowship, the Lord Himself becomes our “portion.” Not possessions, not release from trial, not food, not hobbies, not entertainment, not even some idealized role in ministry. God Himself is seen again as “the strength of my heart and my portion forever.” 

…for me it is good to be near God;
    I have made the Lord God my refuge,
    that I may tell of all your works. || v. 28

Being made aware of His nearness again, we venture out into the harvest fields as those who have God Himself as our refuge, and we are equipped to go out to those who are perishing, bringing the “goodness”, trustworthiness, and truth of God to men. It is upon this foundation alone that we are equipped to “do the work of an evangelist”; to “tell of all” His “works.” 

You who would be freed from the suffocating cycle of self-consciousness and bewilderment; you who would be grounded upon the Rock of your salvation; you who would see your plight as God sees it, rather than as the world sees it; you who would be near to God and have Him as your portion; you who would bear witness to the Person and work of Jesus Christ, enter “the sanctuary of God.” Meet with Him in the secret place, and meet Him in and alongside His people. There is no other way.

“Here is wisdom.”

Widen Your Hearts Also

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We have spoken freely to you, Corinthians; our heart is wide open.  You are not restricted by us, but you are restricted in your own affections.  In return (I speak as to children) widen your hearts also. || 2 Cor. 6.11-13

In Paul’s pleading with the Corinthian saints in this passage, we are supplied with a glimpse into the very heart of Jesus Christ for the Church with regard to Gospel-grounded fellowship. He pleads with them as a father would to stiff-arming children, yet the gravity of the wall which separated them from him is of even greater seriousness than the earthly example.

As true apostles, not as professional ministers, Paul and his co-laborers could describe their relationship to the Corinthian saints with these remarkable terms: “We have spoken freely to you, Corinthians; our heart is wide open.” 

This is no glib description, no cheap or meaningless display of argumentation or self-defense. Paul had spoken “freely” to these saints over the course of his initial 1.5 year stay in their midst, and yet further on his subsequent visits. That is to say, his life was an open-book before them. He was not putting on airs, seeking to please men, nor preaching himself. He was a man who knew what it meant to “speak the truth in love,” to preach Christ with boldness and clarity, to confess his own faults, and to walk in the light with the brethren. He could speak so freely because he was “free indeed,” and thus he had written to them, “By the grace of God I am what I am….” 

When a man is not grounded upon the foundation of “Jesus Christ, and Him crucified,” when the Gospel is not at the heart of his view of himself, when he finds identity in his ministry (“that demons are subject to you in My Name”) rather than in the sonship which issues from the Atonement (“that your names are written in heaven”), he cannot know this kind of “free speaking.” All his speaking, even in a Christian setting, will be fatally mingled with selfish-ambition, self-exaltation, self-consciousness; he will be aiming, in one way or another, to “save his life,” rather than being free to “lose his life” for Jesus’s sake, and for the “sake of the elect.” A man in that condition may be a child of God, but he should not be appointed a pastor, nor a pioneer missionary.

He will invariably draw men after himself. His speech will be laced with leaven, whether it be the fear of man type of leaven, or the superiority-complex kind, which looks condescendingly upon God’s people. Not so with Paul and his apostolic companions. They had been brought by God into an honest, sincere, selfless, no non-sense kind of speech which was infused by the Light of Jesus Christ. They were not aloof professionals. They spoke as fathers, and this is the kind of heart and speech which must be recovered in local churches and missionary endeavors in our day. They were not perfect men, they were men who knew what it meant to truly depend upon Christ. They were what they were by the grace of God. Thus they could say, “We have spoken freely to you….”

This kind of speech was possible because their hearts were “wide open” to the saints. They had nothing to prove, nothing to manipulate, nothing to prop up in hopes of maintaining the appearance of a reputation which didn’t match their true character. They had died to the ambition of establishing anything on the basis of human agenda. They saw themselves as servants who were called to “plant” and “water” in the fields of harvest, that God Himself might give the increase as it pleased His heart.

Paul was jealous to convey to the saints that he was not putting up any walls between his own heart and theirs. He had spoken freely with an open and vulnerable heart, and what they saw in him, if they were seeing rightly, was what he truly was in Christ. He was the genuine article, a man walking circumspectly before God, pouring out his life as a drink offering for the glory of the Lamb and upbuilding of His people. Therefore, his heart was wide open to the saints.

His grief in this passage is that the Corinthian saints were “restricted” from the same kind of liberty that he was enjoying and seeking to nurture in them. Their relationships one to another were strained, their view of Christ was warped, their doctrine was decaying, and this was evidenced by many maladies, not the least of which was their inability to see him by the Spirit. They were relating to him on the basis of flesh, and the blessing that they should be receiving from Christ through his apostolic labors was being hindered.

They were not restricted by him or his co-laborers, but rather in their “own affections.” A hardening had taken place in their view of the Body of Christ, a calcification of fellowship, and the warmth of simplicity and purity in relationship to one another had cooled. They were “restricted” in their affections for the apostle, and this meant that their love for Christ too was being suffocated.

Paul was not concerned about this restriction out of embarrassment for a potential failing ministry, but as a spiritual father for his children in the faith. His desire was for their liberty in Christ; that they should not be enchained by the wisdom of the world which restricts the fluidity of “wide open” fellowship with the Lord and with His people. He knew that if walls were being erected between the apostle and the saints, so were they being erected between the saints and their God.

So he pleaded with them as a father with his children, “widen your hearts also.” 

He was not a distant religionist, but a servant of Christ for their sakes, so he refused to make peace with the presence of a closed-hearted brand of fellowship. That kind of restricted fellowship was distinctly un-Christian, for it lacked the vibrancy and character which Gospel-light provides. It left the Corinthian saints to a jagged kind of relating to him and to one another, a worldly kind of relationship, one by which every man looks to his own preferences and wants, rather than to the glory of God and the eternal good of the brethren.

What shall we gather from this for our own lives and ministries? Can it be said that we know what it is to “speak freely” and to relate to one another with widened hearts? Are we growing in the grace of this kind of fellowship, or are we living as strangers, passing one another week by week, cordially “exchanging glances”, but incapable of speaking freely one with another? Are our fellowships and ministries marked mainly by cultural conversation, casual and cost-less commitment to one another, secret suspicions and jealousies, leaving us in a state of being by which we are leery of widening our hearts for fear of rejection?

Do we know what it means to “walk in the Light” with the brethren, or are we propping up doctored images of ourselves? As teams of elders or as pioneering leaders in a missionary work, are our hearts “wide open” to one another in the Gospel, such that we’re able to “speak freely” in the way of Paul and his companions? Or have we settled for something much more convenient that falls “short of the glory of God?”

What is the temperature and quality of our fellowship? Is it warm, full of light, “wide open” in Christ, or is it clinical and culturally tempered— more catered to self-preservation and driven by a man-pleasing spirit?

Just before the passage in view, Paul had declared to the Corinthians,

“From now on, therefore, we regard no one according to the flesh.” || 2 Cor. 5.16a

But that is precisely what the Corinthians were doing, and the open-hearted, free-speaking apostle was jealous with a fatherly affection that they should be liberated. They had been “restricted” in their own “affections,” and the teeming, life-giving fellowship which is ours in Christ, along with the witness that should have been going forth from them, was coagulating. Paul sought to break up the fallowed ground of that ever-increasing “restriction” through his prayers for the saints, his ongoing teaching and preaching, his own faithful example, and his pleading with them as a father, “widen your hearts also.”

May we receive from the Lord the same kind of passion for His house, and respond accordingly.

Lord, free us from cultural Christianity, which may look proper and even seemingly Biblical on the surface, but is marked by a regarding of one another according to the flesh, a speech that is devoid of Gospel-freedom, and a kind of faulty fellowship which is experienced in a drab way, without widened hearts. Teach us to walk circumspectly before You, to draw wisdom and life from the Scriptures, to be filled with and to “keep in step with the Spirit,” and to “widen our hearts” one to another for the glory of Your Name and the building up of your Body.  Surely the world is languishing in the wilderness of closed-heartedness, restricted from seeing the glory of God in the face of Christ. As we are the only witness-People bearing the Good News by which their hearts may be quickened and widened, bring us to repentance and set us upon the sure foundation of Your Son, that they may “see” our “good works,” and “praise” our “Father in heaven.” None has been more unrestricted in love, more open-hearted and free-speaking than You. Be merciful to us then, O God, and cause us to bear Your image in the nations. Amen.

The Fragrance of God-Riveted Servanthood

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…thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads the fragrance of the knowledge of him everywhere. For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing, to one a fragrance from death to death, to the other a fragrance from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things? For we are not, like so many, peddlers of God’s word, but as men of sincerity, as commissioned by God, in the sight of God we speak in Christ. || 2 Cor. 2.14-17

True apostles are men “commissioned by God” Himself, and their witness to Christ constitutes His very “aroma” among men. Upon the basis of flesh, none can be “sufficient” for the realities of apostolic faith, but as men who have by the grace of sanctification been shaped to bear the very aroma of God, the very “sincerity” of Christ, apostles speak “in the sight of God.” The “grace and apostleship” which has been given to them produces a quality of character which Paul describes as a “triumphal procession”— that is, a joy-filled perseverance in the presence of great resistance and suffering, and a manner of living and serving which “spreads the fragrance of the knowledge of Him everywhere.” 

The ministry of reconciliation is no light thing. It is a precious privilege, one which requires painstaking attention both to orthodoxy and to orthopraxy. Where ministry is approached in a professional way, where it is perceived and performed according to the wisdom of men, abuses and distortions will abound.

Evidently, in Paul’s day there were “so many” who functioned as mere “peddlers of God’s word.” The number of that “so many” is likely greater in our day, and it behooves us to pray that we would not be found in such a warped condition of heart when the Chief Shepherd appears. Therefore, “Watch closely your life and doctrine.”

It is within the possibilities of grace to serve with the same kind of power and wisdom that the early apostles possessed. Regarding those who were mishandling God’s word and ministering according to the flesh, “we are not like” them.

For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake. || 2 Cor. 4.5

The fragrance of God is the fragrance of God-riveted servanthood, the kind of life which is poured out as a drink offering for the sake of His Name, and for the sake of others. There is little room left for self-seeking in the life of a man who has been brought to this glorious place.

We are in profound need of servant-leaders in the Church who have been so wrung out, so emptied, and so filled with the wisdom and power of Christ, that this would be the fragrance of our lives and ministries.

May the Lord have for Himself a company of such servants, in both domestic and pioneer fields, that “this gospel of the kingdom” would “be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.”

15 Pauline Passions That Burn Too Dimly in the Modern Church

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1. A Passion for God’s Glory.

“…our God and Father, to Whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.” ||Gal. 1.4b-5

“…do all for the glory of God.” || 1 Cor. 10.31b

2. A Passion to Know Jesus Christ.

“Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Jesus my Lord. For His sake I have suffered the loss of all things and count them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ…” || Phil. 3.8

3. A Passion for the Gospel.

“For I am not ashamed of the Gospel…” || Rom. 1.16a

4. A Passion for Preaching.

“So I am eager to preach the gospel…” || Rom. 1.15a

“…we preach Christ crucified…” || 1 Cor. 1.23a

“…I was appointed a preacher…” || 1 Tim. 2.7a

5. A Passion for Prayer.

“Continue steadfastly in prayer…” || Col. 4.2a

6. A Passion for the Familial Character of the Church.

“For though you have countless guides in Christ, you do not have many fathers. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.” || 1 Cor. 4.15

“Let brotherly love continue.” || Heb. 13.1

7. A Passion for Elder-led Churches.

“This is why I left you in Crete, so that you might put what remained into order, and appoint elders in every town as I directed you…” || Titus 1.5

“And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they had believed.” || Acts 14.23

“Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God, which He obtained with His own blood.” || Acts 20.28

8. A Passion for Domestic Mission.

“…always be sober-minded, endure suffering, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill your ministry.” || 2 Tim. 4.5

9. A Passion for Character and Sound Doctrine.

“Keep a close watch on yourself and on your teaching.” || 1 Tim. 4.16a

“…teach what accords with sound doctrine.” || Titus 2.1

10. A Passion for the Unreached/Unengaged Peoples of the Earth.

“…I make it my ambition to preach the Gospel, not where Christ has already been named…” || Rom. 15.20a

“…our hope is that as your faith increases, our area of influence along you may be greatly enlarged, so that we may preach the Gospel in lands beyond you…” || 2 Cor. 10.15-16a

11. A Passion for the Mystery of Israel and Her Salvation.

“Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.” || Rom. 10.1

“Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers… all Israel shall be saved…” || Rom. 11.25-26

12. A Passion for Spirit-Endued Community and Mission.

“Pursue love, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy.” || 1 Cor. 14.1

“Finally, brothers, pray for us, that the word of the Lord may speed ahead and be honored…” || 2 Thess. 3.1a

13. A Passion for Kingdom Priorities in All of Life.

“…let each one of you love his wife as himself, and let the wife see to it that she respects her husband.” || Eph. 5.33

“Children, obey your parents in the Lord… Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.” || Eph. 6.1, 4

“…aspire to live quietly, and to mind your own affairs, and to work with your hands… so that you may walk properly before outsiders and be dependent on no one.” || 1 Thess. 4.11-12

“Owe no one anything…” || Rom. 13.8a

“Be generous and ready to share…” || 1 Tim. 6.18

14. A Passion for the “Poured-Out” Life.

“I will most gladly spend and be spend for your souls.” || 2 Cor. 12.15

“…we were ready to share with you not only the Gospel of God but also our own selves…” || 1 Thess. 2.8

“For I am already being poured out as a drink offering…” || 2 Tim. 4.6a

15. A Passion for the Resurrection, the Day of the Lord, and the Return of Jesus Christ.

“…that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection, and may share His sufferings, becoming like Him in His death, that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead.” || Phil. 3.10-11

“…we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.” || Rom. 8.23

“…waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ…” || Titus 2.13

10 Sure-Fire Ways to Do Sub-Apostolic Missions

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1. Devalue prayer (Eph. 6.18-20)

2. Diminish Theology (Titus 2.1)

3. Build para-church ministries rather than making disciples and planting churches (Mt. 28.19/Titus 1.5)

4. Cheapen the importance of nurturing churches of the Acts 2.42-47 kind (2 Cor. 11.28)

5. Seek to avoid suffering (Col. 1.24-26)

6. Labor organizationally without the vitality of true and loving fellowship (1 Jn. 1.5-9)

7. Own paradigms that cater to cowardice (Acts 21.13)

8. Fail to earnestly desire the gifts and work of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 14.1)

9. Preach fads rather than the Cross (1 Cor. 2.2)

10. Redefine the Biblical view of Israel, and thus fail to preach the Gospel of the Kingdom (Rom. 11.25-27)